Innovative technologies related to the nuclear fuel cycle

1 January 2000

Innovative technologies related to the nuclear fuel cycle
Attribute Process & system Relevant countries Features

Fuel composition & process Pyro-process Japan, Russia, USA Smaller radwaste volume and process facility is simpler than for wet process.
  Vibro-packed fuel Russia, Switzerland Fuel particle is directly produced from acid solution from reprocessing.
  DUPIC system Canada, South Korea Plutonium is not separated from PWR spent fuel.
  Thorium fuel (thorium-uranium, thorium-plutonium) India, USA Thorium resource is abundant. Fuel with thorium-uranium composition generates less minor actinides than uranium-plutonium fuel.
  Inert-matrix fuel France, Japan, Switzerland Due to chemically stable oxide, spent fuel is regarded as waste form.

Partitioning & transmutation (PT) system Accelerator driven system France, Japan, USA High neutron energy produced destroys minor actinides, long-lived fission products. Sub-critical core enhances safety.
  PT system with fast reactor Japan, Russia Existing fast reactor technology is applied for destruction of minor actinides, long-lived fission products.

Reactor system Lead (+ bismuth) fast reactor Russia Enhanced safety with use of lead coolant.

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